When the piston of a fountain pen with a nib is dipped in to ink and the air is released by pressing, the ink fills in the pen how?

This is because a pressure bar, similar to one in a lever filter, to press against the ink sac. When we release the button, the pressure bar goes back onto resting position and sac takes in the ink.


What is the difference between Liquid pressure and air pressure

Liquid pressure=

  • Pressure in a liquid increases with depth.
  • A liquid finds it’s own level.
  • Liquid transmits pressure equally in all direction.
  • The pressure at any point in a liquid depends on it’s density.

Air pressure =

  • It exists under Barometric pressure.
  • It is caused by overpressure.
  • Sea level pressure.
  • Gas pressure.
  • It is caused by the weight of all the air in the atmosphere pressing down on the earth
  • Air pressure changes with the height and also when air warms up or cools down
  • Changes in air pressure cause change in the weather

What is buoyancy and buoyant force or upthrust

Buoyancy Definition

The capacity or affinity of something to float in water or other fluid.

What Is the Buoyant Force? 

Buoyancy is, basically, the capacity of a comment or ascend in a liquid. Basic as that. All the more experimentally, buoyancy alludes to a power that emerges from the weight applied on a question by a liquid (a fluid or a gas). Since it’s a power, we call it the buoyant force. 
Buoyancy is a power applied by a fluid or gas that restricts a protest’s weight. Buoyancy can likewise be expressed as the heaviness of uprooted liquid. Weight in a liquid increments with profundity because of the heaviness of the overlying liquid (see hydrostatic weight ). Along these lines a question submerged in a liquid, encounters more noteworthy weight at the base of the liquid than at the best. This distinction in weight brings about a net power that has a tendency to quicken a question upwards. The magnitude of that power is relative to the distinction in the weight between the best and the base of the segment, and is likewise identical to the heaviness of the liquid that would some way or another possess the segment, i.e. the dislodged liquid. It is consequently that a protest whose thickness is more noteworthy than that of the liquid that it is submerged in will sink. Archimedes’ standard takes into consideration the test assurance of thickness by giving a simple and exact technique for deciding the volume of an unpredictably molded question. 
Archimedes’ standard is named after Archimedes of Syracuse, who initially found this law in 212 B.C. Archimedes’ guideline might be expressed in this manner as far as powers: 
Any protest, entirely or somewhat inundated in a liquid, is lightened by a power equivalent to the heaviness of the liquid uprooted by the question. 

ABOUT ARCHIMEDES – Archimedes was the child of a space expert. He had made a trip to Alexandria, Egypt, a position of incredible realizing, where he contemplated crafted by some different mathematicians, similar to Euclid and Conon. Archimedes helped his companion King Hiero II by making machines for the ruler’s armed force. The pulley was one of these developments, yet Archimedes thought the investigation of arithmetic was the most vital thing he could do. Archimedes thought of a few books about Mathematics, including On Floating Bodies. Archimedes passed on amid the Siege of Syracuse when he was executed by a Roman fighter in spite of requests that he ought not be hurt 

For items, floating and indented, and in gases and also fluids, Archimedes’ guideline might be expressed as far as powers: 
As above composed:- 
Any protest, entirely or incompletely inundated in a liquid, is lightened by a power equivalent to the heaviness of the liquid dislodged by the question. with the illuminations that for a depressed protest the volume of uprooted liquid is the volume of the question, and for a floating item on a fluid, the heaviness of the dislodged fluid is the heaviness of the protest. 
Archimedes’ guideline demonstrates that the upward buoyant power that is applied on a body drenched in a liquid, regardless of whether completely or mostly submerged, is equivalent to the heaviness of the liquid that the body dislodges. 
Notice that the acting powers increment with the profundity of the liquid. 
The resultant of all powers upward is called buoyancy and is equivalent to the heaviness of the dislodged liquid. 
Archimedes guideline permits the buoyancy of a protest halfway or completely drenched in a fluid to be ascertained. The descending power on the question is essentially its weight. The upward, or buoyant, compel on the question is that expressed by Archimedes’ standard, above. Accordingly the net upward power on the question is the contrast between the buoyant power and its weight. In the event that this net power is sure, the protest floats; if negative, the question sinks; and if zero, the protest is impartially buoyant – that is, it stays set up without either rising or sinking. In basic words Archimedes rule expresses that when a body is somewhat or totally drenched in a liquid, it encounters an obvious misfortune in weight which is equivalent to the heaviness of the liquid uprooted by the inundated piece of the body. 

Note: Archimedes’ standard does not think about the surface pressure (capillarity) following up on the body yet this extra power adjusts just the measure of liquid uprooted, so the rule that Buoyancy = weight of dislodged liquid stays substantial. 

Consider a solid shape submerged in a liquid, with its sides parallel to the bearing of gravity.. Just the powers on the best and base appearances of the 3D square will add to buoyancy. The weight distinction between the base and the best face is straightforwardly relative to the stature (contrast top to bottom). Duplicating the weight contrast by the region of a face gives the net power on the 3D square – the buoyancy , or the heaviness of the liquid dislodged. 
For a completely submerged question, Archimedes’ standard can be detailed as takes after: 
evident inundated weight = weight of question – weight of dislodged liquid 
thickness of question/thickness of liquid = weight/(weight of dislodged liquid) 
thickness of protest/thickness of liquid =weight/(weight – evident submerged weight) 
The “buoyancy drive” on a submerged body is guided the other way to gravity and is equivalent in magnitude to: 
B = p v g 

(thickness of fluid)(Volume of uproot fluid)(acceleration) 
The components that influence buoyancy are… 

  • the thickness of the liquid, 
  • the volume of the liquid uprooted, and 
  • the nearby speeding up because of gravity. 

The buoyant force isn’t influenced by… 

  • the mass of the drenched question or 
  • the thickness of the submerged protest. 

How Ships float? 
A ship made out of metal can stay lighter than the measure of water it uproots, on the grounds that it isn’t an entire strong. The extremely base of the ship, called the structure, is empty and along these lines adds support to the ship without including any mass. 
At the point when a ship is completely stacked, there is a greatest measure of weight it can convey before the heaviness of the ship increments past the measure of water it uproots. 
In the event that a ship has overabundance water amid a tempest, it is just pumped pull out into the sea and it’s yet again safe from sinking. 
How Life Jackets function? 
Life coats utilize buoyancy as well. Since your body is for the most part water, clutching a light life coat is sufficient to keep you afloat in the profound. 
The material inside an existence coat traps air when the coat is shrouded in water. This caught air measures significantly less than the water it uproots. In this way, the life coat floats and its buoyancy is sufficiently solid to help your weight as well. 
Activities – 

Whenever you are in a swimming pool, take a stab at floating. Lie level on your back and endeavor to keep afloat. You will see that you are more buoyant when you breathe in, than when you breathe out. Would you be able to make sense of why?

What is global warming and green house effect

Determination: Greenhouse gases trap warm on Earth which causes global warming

Earth’s climate works something like a mammoth glass greenhouse. As the sun’s beams enter our climate, most proceed with directly down to the planet’s surface. As they hit the dirt and surface waters, those beams discharge a lot of their vitality as warmth. A portion of the warmth at that point transmits pull out into space. 

In any case, certain gases in our air, for example, carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor, work like a cover to hold quite a bit of that warmth. This warms our climate. The gases do this by retaining the warmth and emanating it back to Earth’s surface. These gases are nicknamed “greenhouse gases” due to their warmth catching effect. Without the “greenhouse effect,” Earth would be excessively chilly, making it impossible to help most types of life. 

Be that as it may, there can be excessively of something to be thankful for. Carbon dioxide is discharged when we utilize petroleum products, for example, coal, oil and flammable gas. We consume these powers, produced using the antiquated stays of plants and creatures, to run power creating plants that power manufacturing plants, homes and schools. 

Results of these non-renewable energy sources, for example, gas and diesel fuel, control a large portion of the motors that drive autos, planes and ships. 

By looking at air rises in ice centers taken from Antarctica, researchers can backpedal and compute what the convergences of carbon dioxide in the air have been all through the most recent 650,000 years. The measure of carbon dioxide in the air has been moving to where today it is 30 percent more prominent than 650,000 years back. That ascent in carbon dioxide “is basically totally because of the consuming of powers,” Susan Solomon says. She’s a senior researcher with the National Maritime and Barometrical Organization, in Rock, Colo., and studies factors that influence atmosphere. 

People have additionally expanded the levels of greenhouse gases noticeable all around by changing the scene. Plants take up carbon dioxide to make sustenance in a procedure called photosynthesis. When chopped down, they can never again take in carbon dioxide, and this gas starts developing noticeable all around as opposed to powering the development of plants. So by chopping down trees and woods for farmland and other human uses, more carbon dioxide is additionally included into the air. 
“We’ve generally had some greenhouse gases in the climate,” Solomon says. “But since we’ve consumed a ton of non-renewable energy sources and deforested parts of the planet, we’ve expanded the measure of greenhouse gases, and accordingly have changed the temperature of the planet.” 
Power influential Words: 

carbon dioxide:

A gas delivered by all creatures when the oxygen they breathe in responds with the carbon-rich nourishments that they’ve eaten. This lackluster, scentless gas additionally is discharged when natural issue (counting non-renewable energy sources like oil or gas) is copied. Carbon dioxide goes about as a greenhouse gas, catching warmth in Earth’s environment. Plants change over carbon dioxide into oxygen amid photosynthesis, the procedure they use to make their own particular sustenance. 

atmosphere :

The climate conditions winning in a zone by and large or over a long stretch. 


The demonstration of evacuating most or the majority of the trees handles that used to hold backwoods. 

Fossil fuels:

 non-renewable energy sources Any fuel, (for example, coal, oil or gaseous petrol) that has created in the Earth more than a large number of years from the rotted stays of microscopic organisms, plant or creatures. 

Global warming:

  The slow increment in the general temperature of Earth’s climate because of the greenhouse effect. This effect is caused by expanded levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons and different gases noticeable all around, a considerable lot of them discharged by human action. 

greenhouse effect :

 The warming of Earth’s air because of the development of warmth catching gases, for example, carbon dioxide and methane. Researchers allude to these poisons as greenhouse gases. 

A hydrocarbon with the substance recipe CH4 (which means there are four hydrogen molecules bound to one carbon iota). It’s a characteristic constituent of what’s known as flammable gas. It’s additionally discharged by breaking down plant material in wetlands and is burped out by dairy animals and other ruminant domesticated animals. From an atmosphere point of view, methane is 20 times more powerful than carbon dioxide is in catching warmth in Earth’s air, making it an essential greenhouse gas. 

(verb: photosynthesize)The process by which green plants and some different living beings utilize daylight to create sustenances from carbon dioxide and warming.

Lab practical of volcano and what is volcanic eruption

Hello! Guys i am back with brand new post today i will describe about volcano so, lets begin:

How we made it(procedure):
1. Put heating powder, water, cleaning up fluid, yellow and red sustenance shading into a jug. 
2. Go outside and burrow an opening, put a container in the gap. 
3. Develop a divider around the jug. 
4. Put the blend from the jug into the container. 
5. At that point… … .include vinegar. 

6. BOOOMMMMM!!! (Blasted/exploded)

Introduction about volcano:

Volcano is an opening, in the planet’s surface which permits hot, liquid shake, fiery debris and gases to escape from beneath the surface.

The name, “volcano” begins from the name Vulcan, a divine force of flame in Roman folklore. Volcanoes resemble monster security valves that discharge the weight that develops inside the Earth. The Hawaii islands were framed by 5 volcanoes. 

Some types of volcanoes:
Ordered by the degree of their action volcanoes are of four kinds. 

  • A ‘dynamic’ volcano is one that ejects routinely. There are around 500 known dynamic volcanoes on Earth, not including those that lie underneath the ocean. 
  • A ‘torpid’ volcano is one that has not ejected for a long time, in spite of the fact that there is still some movement somewhere inside it.
  •  A ‘terminated’ volcano is one which has stopped to be dynamic. 
  • A volcanic emission happens when hot rocks and magma burst from a volcano; and fountains and springs are in reality just volcanoes that toss bubbling water high noticeable all around. They are caused by volcanic warmth warming caught ground water. 

Inner structure of volcano:

The fluid shakes inside a volcano are called magma and when it streams out it is called as magma. New magma has temperatures from 700 degrees C to 1200’C and gleams scorching to white hot as it streams. The most unsafe volcanic ejection recorded is the emission of Mount St. Helens in Washington. 


The tallest volcano on the planet is the Ojos del Salado, a volcano in Chile. The world’s biggest volcano is the Muano Loa in Hawaii. 
Volcanoes are by and large focused on the edge of landmasses, along the island chain, or underneath the ocean shaping long mountain ranges. A noteworthy piece of the world’s dynamic volcanoes above ocean level circle the Pacific Ocean shaping the “Ring of Fire.” 
Volcanoes can have genuine effects on the terrains and individuals around them when they eject. The decimation they leave afterward represents the aggregate obliteration of the encompassing scene. Around 2, 00,000 individuals have lost their lives to volcanic emissions in the previous five hundred years. 
Structures are pulverized, individuals are rendered destitute, individuals are slaughtered, plant and creature life are both annihilated and the noxious gases that radiate from the volcanoes can cause passing and infections like pneumonia in the general population who survive it. 

However not all things associate with the volcanoes is negative. The outside layer of the earth exists due to 
the extensive volumes of magma that did not emit but rather cooled beneath the surface. It brings about rich soil which is useful for development. 

Minerals found in:

The volcanic fiery debris that smothers of the volcano builds soil fruitfulness by adding supplements to the dirt. Ground water warmed by magma can be tapped for geothermal vitality. The vast majority of the metallic minerals like copper, gold, silver, lead and zinc are mined from the magmas discovered profound inside the foundations of terminated volcanoes. 
With the expanding contemplates done by researchers on volcanoes it is getting to be noticeably conceivable to check the movement level of a volcano. With this data in spite of the fact that it won’t not be conceivable to keep the emitting of a volcano in any event the monstrous decimation of lives can be evaded by getting individuals cleared in time.

Why virus are called obligatory/necessary parasites


Since it can’t work or duplicate without a host. Virus particles outside the cell are idle, and play out no metabolic procedures or natural association. Along these lines, it is committed to enter a cell keeping in mind the end goal to repeat and perform elements of ‘life’.


The short response to why viruses are alluded to as commit parasites is that they can’t recreate outside their host. A few specialists utilize the word ‘develop’ for duplicate. The two terms bear the confinements of both English and current logical comprehension. Viruses don’t have conceptive frameworks thus don’t, in the strictest feeling of the word, ‘duplicate’ – their host does. It is therefore that viruses are frequently not thought to live.
Viruses don’t have bodies, outside of a defensive shell, called the capsid, (Lifescience, 2009) so they have no body to develop (they are acellular). On the off chance that by develop it is implied that their populace develops then yes it positively can.
Virus populace development is refined by capturing host (normally particular host) cell assets; everything from its dna/rna regenerative apparatus to the host’s body (think legs for transporting virus to new populaces, the sniffle to encourage spread, to the host’s conduct as in rabies).
Another view is that viruses are commit parasites since they can’t be misleadingly refined. It appears that the favored thinking for in this way ordering viruses is the main given – that in nature they just replicate with a host (Elio, 2009).
In A Genomic Investigation of the Archael Framework Ignicoccus hospitalis-Nanoarchaeum equitans (Poda, et. al., Genome Biol, 2008.) it is recommended that commit parasites, regardless of whether viruses or not, will have genomes of under 1 Mb. An issue emerges with this definition in that Mycoplasmas, which can be falsely refined, are incorporated into this definition however not in the first. It is in this way felt, as of now, division of commit parasites ought not lay on genome measure.
Strangely, The Reference book Britannica states that viruses are commit parasites as they “… need metabolic hardware of their own to produce vitality or to integrate proteins… “. This develops the necessity in that the thermodynamic prerequisite forever is incorporated.
Given these changed definitions and late disclosures in the fluctuations of life itself, GRAJ-1, the arsenic-based microorganisms particularly, it may be smarter to allot a sliding scale to how ‘alive,’ how ‘parasitic,’ or how ‘commit’ something is.

What is mineral and ores

Minerals and its ores –

​World is the principle wellspring of minerals and ores. The greater part of the components don’t discovered Free State in light of their receptive inclinations. Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, zinc, press, lead and so on are the metals found in joined state. Minerals are the regular materials in which the metals and their mixes are found in earth. 
These ores contain great level of metal. Thus, we can state all minerals are not ores but rather all ores are the minerals. 
Plenitudes of the metals in the World’s Covering 
Aluminum is the most copious metallic component however press has assumed a considerably more noteworthy part in mankind’s history and is a basic piece of everyone, truly! Press is one of 94 normally happening components. It is a metallic material with a silver-dark shading and metallic shine. Its Nuclear Number is 26 and its image is Fe. Press is found in all parts of the planet. It includes around 5% of the World’s outside layer yet is thought to make up maybe as much as 80% of the planets center. There are four normally happening stable isotopes of iron with no less than four unsteady isotopes additionally known to exist. 
Attributes of a mineral 
It must happen normally. 
It must be inorganic 
It must be a strong 
It must have an organized inward structure, that is, its particles must be orchestrated in a distinct example. 
It must have an unmistakable substance structure that may change inside indicated limits.” 


Ores are those minerals from which metal are extricated helpfully and gainfully. 
Sorts of Ores 
There are fundamentally four kinds of ores, for example, Oxides; Carbonate Ores; Sulfide; Halides Ores.


Metal, a characteristic conglomeration of at least one minerals that can be mined, prepared, and sold at a benefit. A more established definition limited utilization of the word metal to metallic mineral stores, however the term has extended in a few occasions to incorporate nonmetallics. 
Albeit more than 2,800 mineral species have been recognized, just around 100 are thought about metal minerals. Among these are hematite, magnetite, limonite, and siderite, which are the important wellsprings of iron; chalcopyrite, bornite, and chalcocite, the essential wellsprings of copper; and sphalerite and galena, the chief sources, individually, of zinc and lead. Copper, molybdenum, and gold are generally found in spread stores—i.e., scattered pretty much consistently through an extensive volume of shake. Copper, lead, and zinc are habitually found in gigantic sulfide stores. Numerous such stores are accepted to have been shaped by precipitation from volcanic exhalations on the ocean bottom or by metasomatic substitution (a procedure of synchronous arrangement and statement). 
No metal store comprises completely of a solitary metal mineral. The metal is constantly blended with undesirable or valueless rocks and minerals that are by and large known as gangue. By and large, the metal and the gangue are mined together—i.e., removed from the host shake in a mass by either mechanical or manual means. At that point the metal is isolated from the gangue by different operations referred to all things considered as mineral preparing, or metal dressing. The coveted metallic component is then separated from the mineral by different refining, broiling, or draining procedures. Advances in hydrometallurgy have implied that a few metals, for example, copper, uranium, and gold—can be expelled from the host shake without boring and impacting. Exceptional microorganisms are at times utilized as a feature of this procedure. After recuperation, the metals might be still additionally refined (purged) or alloyed with different metals, as in a copper refinery or steel process. Mining, handling, and refining are consequently progressive strides in the usage of a metal store to yield a metal.